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对GRE Argument考试官方陈述的解读及其在考题中的实现

2017-11-30 15:25

来源:GRE年度报告

作者:上海新东方 陈晟

  众所周知,官方陈述是所有GRE备考考生必须要掌握并吃透的内容。相比其他部分惜字如金的介绍,ETS在对argument考试的介绍可谓不惜笔墨。自然,我们就必须要对官方所给出的详细介绍进行一个详尽的分析,并从中挖出“金子”,来指导我们的备考和写作。

  >>>点击查看2017-2018GRE年度报告

  The "Analyze an Argument" task assesses your ability to understand, analyze and evaluate arguments according to specific instructions and to convey your evaluation clearly in your writing. The task consists of a brief passage in which the author makes a case for some course of action or interpretation of events by presenting claims backed by reasons and evidence.

  Your task is to discuss the logical soundness of the author's case by critically examining the line of reasoning and the use of evidence. This task requires you to read the argument and instructions carefully. You might want to read the argument more than once and make brief notes about points you want to develop more fully in your response. In reading the argument, you should pay special attention to:

  ● what is offered as evidence, support or proof

  ● what is explicitly stated, claimed or concluded

  ● what is assumed or supposed, perhaps without justification or proof

  ● what is not stated, but necessarily follows from what is stated

  In addition, you should consider the structure of the argument — the way in which these elements are linked together to form a line of reasoning; i.e., you should recognize the separate, sometimes implicit steps in the thinking process and consider whether the movement from each step to the next is logically sound. In tracing this line, look for transition words and phrases that suggest the author is attempting to make a logical connection (e.g., however, thus, therefore, evidently, hence, in conclusion).

  An important part of performing well on the Argument task is remembering what you are not being asked to do:

  ● You are not being asked to discuss whether the statements in the argument are true or accurate.

  ● You are not being asked to agree or disagree with the position stated.

  ● You are not being asked to express your own views on the subject being discussed (as you were in the Issue task).

  Instead, you are being asked to evaluate the logical soundness of an argument of another writer and, in doing so, to demonstrate the critical thinking, perceptive reading and analytical writing skills that university faculty consider important for success in graduate school.

  "Analyze an Argument" is a critical thinking task requiring a written response. Consequently, the analytical skills displayed in your evaluation carry great weight in determining your score; however, the clarity with which you convey ideas is also important to your overall score.

  这段介绍中,ETS全面讲述了argument考试的核心内容。现对之梳理如下:

  1) 考试目标:分析一篇给定议论文的逻辑严谨性(logical soundness);

  2) 评分标准:你的分析能力将直接决定你考分的高低(Consequently, the analytical skills displayed in your evaluation carry great weight in determining your score)。

  3) 解决方案:从逻辑推导(the line of reasoning)和证据使用(the use of evidence)这两个方面入手研究。

  4) 具体操作方法:认真阅读文章,首先找到四个基本元素:证据、结论、假定、隐含信息。其次理清由这四个基本元素所连成的整篇文章的逻辑脉络(the structure of the argument)。

  5) 哪些不能做:1)客观事实不可以攻击。题目要求分析的是文章的逻辑,而非文章给出的客观事实本身是否正确,否则这个考试就没有意义了。2)不要出现主观判断。这个考试是一个纯客观的写作(根据别人的论证逻辑写一篇文章研究其逻辑严谨性),因此从读题到分析到最后的写作,没有任何一个地方需要我们发表主观观点。

  6) 语言能力:ETS所给出的语言要求很明确:表意清晰(clarity)。简而言之,就是你想表达的实际意思和你最后表述出来的内容之间没有差距。

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