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GRE阅读做题时到底是如何操作的

2017-10-16 15:48

来源:新东方北京学校

作者:万炜

  今天,我们拿一篇范例来演示一下GRE阅读做题时到底是如何操作的。

  EXAMPLE

  A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in mapmaking and cartographic scholarship. Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance, understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects, while others saw themselves as landscape painters. That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography. Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age. Early mapmaking was considered art while modern cartography was located within the realm of engineering utility. Alpers, however, has argued that this boundary would have puzzled mapmakers in the seventeenth century, because they considered themselves to be visual engineers.

  1. According to the passage, Alpers would say that the assumptions underlying the “paradigm” were

  A. inconsistent with the way some mapmakers prior to 1800 understand their own work

  B. dependent on a seventeenth-century conception of mapmaking visual engineering

  C. unconcerned with the difference between the aesthetic and technical questions of mapmaking

  D. insensitive to divisions among cartographers working in the period after 1800

  E. supported by the demonstrable technical superiority of mapmaking made after 1800

  2. It can be inferred from the passage that, beginning in the 1980s, historians of cartography

  A. placed greater emphasis on the beauty of maps made after 1800

  B. expanded their range of study to include more material created after 1800

  C. grew more sensitive to the way mapmakers prior to 1800 conceived of their work

  D. came to see the visual details of maps as aesthetic objects rather than practical cartographic aids

  E. reduced the attention they paid to the technical aspects of mapmaking

  阅读过程讲解

  1 A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in mapmaking and cartographic scholarship.

  【视角】作者的判断,无引用观点。关键逻辑标识:divide between X and Y,体现了aesthetic和technical的对立。说明,mapmaking和cartography研究中存在aesthetic和technical的对立,我们之后简称为“美”与“技”。

  2 Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance, understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects, while others saw themselves as landscape painters.

  【视角】for instance,表明此句话和上句话语义必须一致,不会增添新信息。nineteenth century cartographers ..., while others ...表对比,鉴于和上文信息一致,则最有可能本句画就是说一派人是美的派别,而一派人是技的派别。显然,technician应该是技,则not care about visual effects体现visual effects应该是美,而landscape painters应该是美

  3 That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography.

  【视角】that dichotomy继续体现刚才的对立。本句话再次没有新信息,不改变文章。

  4 Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age.

  【视角】Until 1980s出现,就应该感觉到文章区分了1980s前和1980s后,最可能就是要顺着前文继续展开一派美和一派技,文章应该不会出现主线方向改变,我们唯一需要确定的是哪一派美,哪一派技。注意, Until = before,而且表示这个时间点前后是相反的。所以, before 1980s, scholars focus on maps before 1800, marveling at their beauty,足以体现,1980s前的学者关注的是1800前的map,关注的是美,则我们推知1980s后的学者开始关注1800后的map,开始关注技。regret decline of pre-technical验证了这一点,pre-technical,前科技时代,就是美的时代,凋零了,说明之后变成了技。

  5 Early mapmaking was considered art while modern cartography was located within the realm of engineering utility.

  【视角】早期是美,后期是技。这句话纯废话,和上文说的一模一样。

  6 Alpers, however, has argued that this boundary would have puzzled mapmakers in the seventeenth century, because they considered themselves to be visual engineers.

  【视角】Alpers, however,出现新的视角,出现了however,表明有人要对刚才作者的立场表达质疑。this boundary继续体现刚才的美技对立,puzzle seventeenth century,令17世纪感到困惑,说明17世纪人不这么区分美技,这时接下来必须读出17世纪的特点,且要与美技区分对立。consider themselves to be "visual engineers" 体现这些人既在意美(visual)又在意技 (engineers)。

  于是,删除全文所有不影响主线的信息,文章主线是:mapmaking和cartography研究领域存在aesthetic于technical的对立。但是,Alpers认为17世纪人认为美技不分家。

  题目解析

  1. According to the passage, Alpers would say that the assumptions underlying the “paradigm” were

  信息题。问的是Alpers的观点,Alpers会认为这个范式(“the Old is Beautiful Paradigm”)的假设是怎么样的。这个范式关注的是1800年前老的美的地图,认为有技术和美学的分离;而转折之后Alpers认为17世纪的制图家不同意有这个分离。所以Alpers肯定对这个范式的假设是负态度。

  A. inconsistent with the way some mapmakers prior to 1800 understand their own work

  正确,即Alpers认为“一些1800年前的人”(即17世纪的制图家)不同意这个范式的假设。

  B. dependent on a seventeenth-century conception of mapmaking visual engineering

  错误,Alpers认为这个范式和17世纪的观念是矛盾的,并不是dependent on。

  C. unconcerned with the difference between the aesthetic and technical questions of mapmaking

  错误, Alpers只是认为17世纪的mapmakers不关注美技分离,并没有说这个范式不关注美技分离。

  D. insensitive to divisions among cartographers working in the period after 1800

  错误,Alpers只有最后一句观点,他并没有认为这个范式不关注什么,更没有提到1800后的分离。

  E. supported by the demonstrable technical superiority of mapmaking made after 1800

  错误,Alpers只有最后一句观点,他并没有认为这个范式被什么支持,他对这个范例是负态度。

  正确答案:A

  2. It can be inferred from the passage that, beginning in the 1980s, historians of cartography

  信息题。问1980年代之后,制图学的研究者怎么样。文章中说的是1980年代前(until 1980s)研究者主要关注1800年前的地图,赞叹它们的美丽;until表示时间点前后相反,可推出1980年代后更多地研究1800年之后的地图,关注它们的技术。

  A. placed greater emphasis on the beauty of maps made after 1800

  错误,1980年后的研究者更多关注技术而不是美学。

  B. expanded their range of study to include more material created after 1800

  正确,1980年代后不止关注1800年前的地图,更多地研究1800年之后的地图。

  C. grew more sensitive to the way mapmakers prior to 1800 conceived of their work

  错误,1980年代后是变得更关注1800年之后的地图,而不是1800年前的。

  D. came to see the visual details of maps as aesthetic objects rather than practical cartographic aids

  错误,1980年代后更关注的是技术,而不是认为地图的细节是美学。

  E. reduced the attention they paid to the technical aspects of mapmaking

  错误,1980年代后更关注技术,而不是减少对技术的关注。

  正确答案:B

  译 文

  对审美与技术的区分在制图学中扮演着重要的角色。比如,自从十九世纪起,制图家就把自己视为纯粹的技师,并不在意视觉效果,而另一些人把自己看作是山水画家。这种对立也影响了制图史的研究。在20世纪80年代以前,Blakemore和Harley主张“过去的是一种美的范式”,学者们大多只关注1800年前绘制的地图,感慨于这些地图之美,并遗憾美学时代的衰败。早期绘图被认为是一种艺术,而当代制图学被纳入到了实用工程的领域。但是,Alpers认为,这种界限划分会让十七世纪的绘图者感到困惑,因为他们自认为是视觉的工程师。

  作者介绍:万 炜,新东方教育科技集团优秀教师,北京大学新闻学学士、哲学硕士,主教GRE阅读、写作、TOEFL写作

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