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透过文字本质看GRE难题解析

2017-07-17 10:49

来源:新东方北京学校

作者:孙瑜

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  GRE考试中文章的作者意图总是让我们云山雾罩。看清作者意图一方面对选择有着极大帮助,另一方面,对于细节的考察,我们也从态度上得到暗示。下面就为大家分享GRE备考资料,解析下GRE文字如何通过文字态度分析题目。

  一 直接考察态度

  一篇文章当中,态度的重要性不言而喻,尤其是作者的态度。我们一起来看看两个GRE考试文章的态度考题以及文章中的节选部分。

  Her method is partly documentary in nature: the novel includes such features as a carefully annotated reproduction of dialect, the exact details of food prices in an account of a tea party, an itemized description of the furniture of the Bartons’ living room, and a transcription (again annotated) of the ballad “The Oldham Weaver”. The interest of this record is considerable, even though the method has a slightly distancing effect.

  1. Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude toward Gaskell’s use of the method of documentary record in Mary Barton?

  A. uncritical enthusiasm

  B. Unresolved ambivalence

  C. Qualified approval

  D. Resigned acceptance

  E. Mild irritation

  我们来分析第一题,这属于态度最经典的考法,审题过程中,注意题干上的态度所有者author和态度对象documentary record。回文定位利用documentary来确定上面节选的几句话。 答案来自于定位层次最后一句,分析态度有两个方向即正负,但别忘了,如果同时存在还要分析正负的强弱性。比如interest是正向的,considerable是正向的程度。而distancing effect距离感是负向的,slightly是负向的程度。所以关于documentary的态度文章中是正强负弱。带着分析结果来看选项:

  A不加区分的,不加批评的热情,这是一个纯正的选项,错。

  B 未解决的不确定,错。

  C有限制的赞成,qualify在阅读当中是一个对过很多次的词汇(同学最喜欢听这样的表达),这个单词除了我们常见的合格或者使有资格,gre当中最常用的就是limit或者restrict这个含义,部分限制,c选项的意思是对正向加一些限制,完全吻合文中的含义,对。

  D勉强的接受,这个resign除了辞职的意思外,还有屈从顺从或者勉强接受的意思,那这个选项是负向态度更多,错。

  E轻微的愤怒,愤怒这个单词是不会用来形容作者的观点的,错。

  As a member of the middle class, Gaskell could hardly help approaching working-class life as an outside observer and a reporter, and the reader of the novel is always conscious of this fact. But there is genuine imaginative re-creation in her accounts of the walk in Green Heys Fields, of tea at the Bartons’ house, and of John Barton and his friend’s discovery of the starving family in the cellar in the chapter “Poverty and Death.” Indeed, for a similarly convincing re-creation of such families’ emotions and responses (which are more crucial than the material details on which the mere reporter is apt to concentrate), the English novel had to wait 60 years for the early writing of D. H. Lawrence. If Gaskell never quite conveys the sense of full participation that would completely authenticate this aspect of Mary Bartons, she still brings to these scenes an intuitive recognition of feelings that has its own sufficient conviction.

  2. It can be inferred that the author of the passage believes that Mary Barton might have been an even better novel if Gaskell

  A. concentrated on the emotions of a single character

  B. made no attempt to re-create experiences of which she had no firsthand knowledge

  C. made no attempt to reproduce working-class dialects

  D. grown up in an industrial city

  E. managed to transcend her position as an outsider

  来分析第二题,题干上并没有像第一题一样直接给出attitude,而是问“如果Gaskell做什么,Mary Barton这个小说会更好”。既然问怎么样会更好,就证明现在是有负向性的,那么这个题就是定位回文章中的作者负向态度点即可。

  文章中第一次负向性通过上一个例题我们已经知道,是针对documentary record。

  节选的这个段落第一句说作为中产阶级,Gaskell只能以outsider的身份来写,并且读者都知道她写的不是自己的生活。但接下来评价她再创造的内容特点是genuine和convincing。最后一句话重复上面的评价,从来都没有传递过百分百的参与感,她仍然给我们带来的可信的场景描述。句子当中的负向性比distancing effect要难以识别,是来自于Gaskell的outsider身份。

  两次负向性都找到了,答案对其中任何一次取反都可以。

  最后确定答案是E(managed to transcend her position as an outsider)。

  二 间接利用态度 

  我们来看一篇文章中的两个题目

  1. The author suggests that in considering the biodiversity of islands, Evans

  A. focuses too exclusively on terrestrial resources

  B. misunderstands the relationship between an island’s size and its terrestrial resources

  C. misinterprets the work of MacArthur and Wilson

  D. is wrong to assume that more remote islands support fewer species

  E. downplays the ways that human communities adapt to island biodiversity

  2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. evaluate two contrasting approaches to island biodiversity

  B. discuss the relevance of certain data pertaining to island biodiversity

  C. call into question a particular understanding of island biodiversity

  D. consider various reasons for reduced biodiversity on islands

  E. contrast large and small islands in terms of overall biodiversity

  虽然没有节选文章,但通过第一题的选项我们发现作者对Evans这个人一定是负向态度,因为五个选项都只是给出具体负向的原因。那么第二题的主旨我们就可以利用作者的负向性态度来优先阅读C选项。如果C就是对的,即可停止。这种情况下可以节省我们的做题时间

  反过来思考,如果作者没有对文中观点给情感色彩,只是呈现别人的观点,选项中的态度也可以用来排除。比如下面这个例题中的C和D

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

  A. present a scientific theory that challenges a widely held theory

  B. summarize the basis for a large body of scientific research

  C. defend an established scientific theory in light of recent criticism

  D. express skepticism about the results obtained by a particular researcher

  E. compare the results of two particular scientific studies

  Defend和express skepticism都要求文章中有作者的明确态度才可能有机会对。

  我们今天只是说到了作者的态度,其实文章中其他人物的态度同样重要也可以直接解题,我们改天再聊吧!

  作者简介:

  孙瑜,北京新东方GRE阅读名师,优秀的英语功底和对英语的热爱是长期从事GRE阅读和数学教学的基础。自2011年加入新东方,授课学员数万名,从教学中汲取丰富授课及考试经验,并将这些知识通过轻松活跃的课堂传授给学生,授人以鱼不如授人以渔,希望让每个走进课堂的同学都取得成功。

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