2011-11-25 18:42





  Time - 30 minutes

  38 Questions

  Directions: Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that

  something has been omitted. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets

  of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning

  of the sentence as a whole.

  1. Nonviolent demonstrations often create such ten- sions that a community that has

  constantly refused to —— its injustices is forced to correct them: the injustices

  can no longer be ——。






  2. Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen‘s novels has oscillated between ——

  and condescension; but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly than

  did most of her literary ——。


  (B)adoration. .contemporaries




  3. There are, as yet, no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been ——

  to the extent that they no longer —— ecologists.






  4. Under ethical guidelines recently adopted by the National lnstitutes of Health,

  human genes are to be manipulated only to correct diseases for which ——

  treatments are unsatisfactory.






  5. It was her view that the country‘s problems had been —— by foreign technocrats,

  so that to invite them to come back would be counterproductive.






  6. Winsor McCay, the cartoonist, could draw with incredible ——: his comic strip

  about Little Nemo was characterized by marvelous draftsmanship and sequencing.






  7. The actual —— of Wilson‘s position was always —— by his refusal to

  compromise after having initially agreed to negotiate a settlement.






  Directions: In each of the foiiowing questions, a related pair of words or phrases

  is followed by five lettered pairs of words or phrases. Select the lettered pair that

  best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair.


  (A)epidemic : contagiousness

  (B)vaccine : virus

  (C)laxative : drug

  (D)anestheiic : numbness

  (E)therapy : psychosis


  (A)participant : team

  (B)commuter : train

  (C)gladiator : arena

  (D)senator : caucus

  (E)patient : ward


  (A)temptation : conquer

  (B)starvation : eat

  (C)wanderlust : travel

  (D)humor : laugh

  (E)survival : live


  (A)confident : arrogant

  (B)courageouss : pugnacious

  (C)famous : aggressive

  (D)rash : foolhardy

  (E)quiet : timid


  (A)cure : recovery

  (B)narcotic : sleep

  (C)stimulant : relapse

  (D)tonic : lethargy

  (E)resuscitation : breathing

  13. STYGIAN.: DARK ::

  (A)abysmal : low

  (B)cogent : contentious

  (C)fortuitous.: accidental

  (D)reckless : threatening

  (E)cataclysmic : doomed


  (A)generation : pyre

  (B)burial : mortuary

  (C)weapon : centurion

  (D)massacre : invasion

  (E)prediction : augury


  (A)tlansparent : penetrate

  (B)onerous : struggle

  (C)feckless : succeed

  (D)illusory : exist

  (E)pliant : yield


  (A)dote : like

  (B)lal: : stray

  (C)vex : please

  (D)earn : desire

  (E)recast : explain

  Directions: Each passage in this group is followed by questions based on its content.

  After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions

  following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.

  lt has been known for many decades that the appear-

  ance of sunspots is roughly periodic, with an average

  cycle of eleven years. Moreover, the incidence of solar

  flares and the flux of solar cosmic rays, ultraviolet radia-

  tion, and x-radiation all vary directly with the sunspot (5)

  cycle. But after more than a century of investigation. the

  relation of these and other phenomena, known collec-

  tively as the solar-activity cycle, to terrescrial weather

  and climate remains unclear. For example. the sunspot

  cycle and the allied rnagnetic-polarity cycle have been (10)

  linked to periodicities discerned in records of such vari-

  ables as rainhll. temperature, and winds. lnvariably,

  however, the relation is weak. and commonly ofdubious

  statistical significance.

  Effects of solar variability over longer terms have also (15)

  been sought. The absence of recorded sunspot activity in

  the notes kept by European observers in the late seven-

  teenth and early eighteenth centuries has led some schol-

  ars to postulate a brief cessation of sunspot activity at

  that time (a period called the Maunder minimum)。 The (20)

  Maunder minimum has been linked to a span of unusual

  cold in Europe extending from the sixteenth to the early

  nineteenth centuries. The reality of the Maunder mini-

  mum has yet to be established, however, especially since

  the records that Chinese naked-eye observers of solar (25)

  activity made at that time appear to contradict it. Scien-

  tists have also sought evidence of long-term solar period-

  icities by examining indirect climatological data, such as

  fossil recoras of the thickness of ancient tree rings. These

  studies, however, failed to link unequivocally terrestrial(30)

  climate and the solar-activity cycle, or even to contirm

  the cycle‘s past existenue.

  If consistPn! and re!iab!e geo!sgigal~-arek-xologieal

  evidence tracing the solar-activity cycle in the distant

  past could be found, it might also resolve an important(35)

  issue in solar physics: how to model solar activity. Cur-

  rently, chere are two models of solar activity. The tirst

  supposes that the Sun‘s internal motions (caused by

  rotation and convection)interact with its large-scale

  magnetic field to produce a dynamo. a device in which(40)

  mechanical energy is converted into the energy of a mag-

  netic field. ln short. the Sun‘s large-scale magnetic field

  is taken to be self-sustaining, so that the solar-activity

  cycle it drives would be maintained with little overall

  changc for perhaps billions of years. The alternative(45)

  exp)anarion supposes that the Sun‘s large-sca)e magnetic

  field is a remnant of the field the Sun acquired when it

  formed, and is not sustained against decay. In this

  model. the solar mechanism dependent on the Sun‘s

  magnetiC field runs down more quickly. Thus, the char-(50)

  acteristics of the solar-activity cycle uvuld be expected to

  change over a long period of time. Modern solar obser-

  vations span too short a time to reveal whether present

  cyclical solar aCtivity is a long-lived feature of the Sun,

  or merely a transient phenomenon.





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